Gas Processing & LNG is Produced by Gulf Publishing Holdings LLC

Gas Processing & LNG White Papers

Air Products Logo


Two Layers Are Better Than Three - Boosting pipeline performance and savings with dual-layer barrier systems

With the availability of enhanced dual-layer coating systems that improve upon tried-and-true Abrasion-Resistant Overcoat (ARO) technology, pipeline owners and operators have a new viable option to protect their critical assets. These novel dual-layer systems feature enhanced moisture, gouge and impact resistance, while simultaneously having higher dielectric strength.

Download here


Air Products Logo


Selecting the best nitrogen removal for your LNG plant

New natural gas liquefaction projects require efficient, low CAPEX nitrogen removal options. Several practical options are described in this paper and each equipment arrangement offers unique benefits. It is critical to understand the benefits of these arrangements in order to develop a robust and reliable project selection.

Download here


Air Products Logo


Decarbonize LNG liquefaction with pre-combustion CO2 capture technology

This paper discusses several methods to reduce and capture CO2 emissions associated with LNG liquefaction. For both existing plants and new facilities, 97+% CO2 capture is possible by integrating pre-combustion capture with the liquefaction unit while recovering CO2 from the liquefaction acid gas removal unit.

Download here


Air Products Logo


Leave Refrigerants Out in the Cold

This paper shows that gas expansion cycles such as the AP-C1™ process can provide significant power savings when operating at ambient temperatures well below the design point. Additionally, the process is flexible and operationally simple. These features make it particularly attractive for arctic applications.

Download here




Digital lifecycle excellence for the pipeline industry

Facing market volatility and pressure to reduce emissions, the oil and gas pipeline industry requires high financing levels to fund its capital projects and operations. The industry must also compete with other economic sectors for scarce investor resources. To better navigate these growing challenges, pipeline companies must embrace innovation and digitalization. Download our executive brief to learn how integrating your physical and digital pipeline assets improves business decision-making and operational efficiency. 

Download here




Modular Automation eBook: Flexible Process Control to Meet Today’s Requirements and Tomorrow’s Demands

Automation system integration can be challenging. Many organizations need powerful standalone control, but also need to leverage easy integration into a control system. Emerson has developed simple strategies for improving integration. Download Emerson's Modular Automation eBook to see how organizations across industries are using flexible technologies to connect plant systems — accelerating speed to market through faster projects and more integrated operations. 

Download here


Air Products Logorr


Finding the Right Combination of LNG Subcooling and End-Flash

In a natural gas liquefaction (LNG) facility, the amount of subcooling performed on the LNG and the quantity of end-flash vapor produced affects the investment in liquefaction equipment and refrigeration power.  This article will cover the advantages of end-flash exchangers over cold compression and various flash configurations. 

Download here


Air Products

Advancements in DMR Liquefaction Technology: single-pressure versus dual-pressure

Advancements in FLNG Technology: Air Products has developed newer single-pressure precooling DMR technology that has significant advantages over the dual-pressure design, especially for floating LNG plant applications. The article will discuss in detail the improvements in offshore natural gas liquefaction technology.


Nalco Water

Analyzing Your Fluid

This white paper explains how routine fluid analysis plays an important part in preventive maintenance. Results indicate fluid condition so you know the health of your system. Learn when to test and the proper and safe way to provide a fluid sample.


Nalco Water

Overcoming Microbial Fouling in Cooling Systems with Hydrocarbon Contamination

In gas processing plants, hydrocarbon leak events happen often and as a result, the potential of fouling increases rapidly. Fouling not only contributes to poor heat transfer, corrosion rates increase as well. This paper will highlight chlorine dioxide as the biocide of choice for challenging systems. Real-life customer benefits are provided.


Stratus Technologies
Deploy Edge Computing to Accelerate Digital Transformation in Midstream Oil & Gas

Edge Computing platforms allow operators the ability to monitor performance and gain real-time insight at the industrial edge. Harnessing this data therefore becomes fundamental to operators’ overarching goals related to safety, regulatory compliance, operational excellence, sustainability, and customer satisfaction. This whitepaper discusses modern Edge Computing platforms, their application in driving operational excellence, use cases that solve digital challenges, and the path forward to advanced Industry 4.0 capabilities via deployment at the industrial edge.


Air Products
Innovations to reduce cost and schedule for small-scale LNG

In the coming decade increased interest in LNG for transportation, peak shaving, power generation and marine fuel is expected to significantly grow the needs for small-scale LNG (ssLNG) liquefaction plants, each producing approximately 100 - 500 TPD of LNG. These plants are about 100 times smaller than baseload plants, so the economic, technical and project requirements are very different. This article provides insights into the key factors for an economic ssLNG facility.


Reduce CAPEX by 50% and Footprint by 40% in Gas Quality Measurement Applications

Compliance with gas quality specifications requires the measurement of both sulfur and natural gas energy content. Supporting these measurements often involves multiple gas analyzers or expensive and large conventional air-bath oven gas chromatographs. This white paper outlines ways to reduce cost, footprint, and complexity by leveraging the industry’s first explosion-proof gas chromatograph capable of combining the measurement of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), energy content, hydrocarbon dew point, and total sulfur compounds in a single compact, field-mountable gas analyzer solution.


Nalco Water
Corrosion Control for Gas Treating Amines: New Technology Leads to Increased Amine Unit Efficiency

Learn how one innovation can increase amine efficiency and reduce costs associated with corrosion. This new technology will inhibit the degradation of amines from oxygen attack and control corrosion in process gas, while stabilizing the amine from degradation into bicine and other heat-stable amine salts. Together with a proprietary real-time amine corrosion control program has proven to both mitigate oxygen degradation of amine and measure and control the overall corrosivity of amine units.


Air Products
LNG Mega-Trains Revisited

Recently there has been renewed interest in large capacity trains and their potential unit cost reduction. Since the development of the original AP-X® trains however, there have been significant advancements in gas turbine, compression, coil wound heat exchanger and other technology. These advancements in LNG process technology enable new equipment arrangements for AP-X®, AP-DMR and AP-C3MR technologies that offer benefits in liquefaction train availability, equipment count and operating cost.


How to Cut Costs, Risks and Time in Onshore Oil and Gas Compression Stations to Maximize Investment Returns

Today's professionals in charge of the design, engineering, and construction of new onshore compression stations — or retrofits and upgrades of existing ones — have many options and tools to ensure new infrastructure can be built, commissioned, and begin full operation more quickly, economically, and with less risk than more traditional approaches.


Air Products
Designing flexible LNG plants for market adaption

The evolving LNG market simultaneously presents many opportunities and challenges that demand robust and flexible solutions. Determining the optimal combination of solutions is not always simple, as there are often interactions and synergies among technology choices and specific project constraints. This article explores options in designing flexible LNG plants to account for a variety of project specific conditions.


Air Products
Coil wound heat exchanger design for an evolving LNG market

The liquefied natural gas (LNG) market has witnessed significant evolution over the past several years, including the introduction of new process cycles, increased train production capacity, floating LNG (FLNG) facilities, more compact plant layouts, and a move to modular construction methods. This paper describes these changes and the innovations in coil wound heat exchanger (CWHE) design and fabrication to meet these new requirements and challenges.


Measure Flare Gas in Real Time: Real-Time Adjustments for Changes in Gas Composition at Low Flows

Discover how thermal mass flow meters with qMix-RealTime™ software automatically update flare gas composition from a gas chromatograph, real-time, no calibration needed in Sierra's new white paper entitled "New Developments in Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Meters: Real-Time Adjustments for Changes in Gas Composition at Low Flows." You will learn 1) how to meet government regulations for flare gas, especially at ultra-low flows, with QuadraTherm® thermal mass flow technology 2) how QuadraTherm® mass flow meters use qMix-RealTime™ software to update flare gas composition from a gas chromatograph in the field — automatically.


What to Consider Before You Purchase Your Next Gas Chromatograph (GC)

Hydrocarbon processing plants often focus on purchasing a GC that can handle the gas analysis application at the best price and only consider the cost of the GC. This approach ignores significant expenses required for the installation and operation of the GC. Learn about the hidden costs in GC installations and steps you can take to avoid them.


Honeywell UOP
Defying Convention: Modular and Connected Gas Processing

Globally, the demand for ethane is forecasted to increase from 1.4 million bdp in 2017 to 2.5 million bdp by 2023. As a result, many planned projects are adapting a differentiated approach to LNG construction, utilizing modular LNG building blocks versus the traditional stick-built approach. Modularization is helping create the lowest cost LNG projects and allowing operators to come online more quickly. In addition, Honeywell UOP Russell SC30 RSV allows operators to maximize ethane recovery while lessening total capital expenditures as well as connecting digitally for optimal productivity through expert support.


Air Products
Liquefaction cycles for floating LNG: From concept to reality

Selecting the optimal liquefaction cycle for floating LNG (FLNG) is key to project success. Factors such as sea motion, space limitations, feed gas compositions, and heightened safety concerns have driven the development of alternate liquefaction cycles for these unique challenges. The article will describe key features of the different liquefaction cycles available, and how leveraging relevant land based and offshore experience is essential to the successful implementation of new liquefaction technologies.


Cost Considerations When Selecting Variable Frequency Drive Solution

A highly efficient solution for low power applications, the new SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY GH180 air-cooled drive delivers optimal power and protection in a simpler, more compact package than ever. Siemens power cell design offers incredible flexibility to suit virtually any application and allows for less maintenance and greater availability. And when combined with up to 90% savings on cable costs, the result is a significantly lower total cost of ownership over the drive's lifecycle.


Know Your TCO: A Look at Medium-voltage VFDs

Medium voltage variable frequency drives are high-consideration, high-cost assets that are becoming increasingly common in manufacturing processes. But when engineers are pricing equipment upgrades, a bottom-line approach can overlook cost-lowering benefits such as energy efficiency and process control. You have to know your TCO (total cost of ownership). In this white paper, we analyze which factors contribute to TCO, demonstrate how to calculate net present value (NPV), and explain the inverse relationship between reliability and TCO.


Principles of Modular Multilevel Converter Topology

Cell-based, multilevel converters provide an attractive solution in the design and application of medium voltage drives. In this paper we will explore the several benefits such as: cell redundancy, scalability, low fault energy, easy cell exchange and virtually sinusoidal load and motor-friendly output current. We will also learn how medium voltage drives using Modular Multilevel Converter (M2C) technology provides the same superior performance of cell-based, multilevel converters while adding the flexibility and configurability of a drive with a common DC link and distributed energy storage.


IRPC EurAsia
Europe’s Downstream Construction Plans and Move Towards a Sustainable Future

The downstream markets in Europe and Asia have stark differences. Europe—especially Western Europe—has a mature refining and petrochemical production network. Many plants were constructed dozens of years ago. However, the region is making concerted efforts to boost sustainability, including mandating clean-fuels production and increasing energy efficiency, while mitigating plant emissions and waste. The region is building additional production capacity, but project numbers vary significantly between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). This whitepaper details major downstream oil and gas initiatives in Europe, along with capital expenditures in downstream project construction.


How to Maximize Performance in the Amine Unit

Amine systems are very sensitive to contaminants in the inlet gas. Normally separation and filtering operations prior to the amine unit remove contaminants. Even with these operations, problems and system upsets still occur. Finding ways (solutions) to minimize, mitigate or prevent those upsets and maintain performance is critical. Learn how Nalco Water and BASF tackle these upsets and improve plant performance through a comprehensive approach.


3 Keys to Success when Embarking on Your Digital Acceleration Journey

In asset-intensive industries, IIoT and digitalization technologies are paving the way to increased profitability and reliability. However, capturing this opportunity does not require a full-scale digital transformation. This paper discusses how to apply these technologies where they will create the most impact, and outlines three keys to success when embarking on your digital acceleration journey.


Air Products
Managing Project Risk through Standardization and Modularization

Execution strategies incorporating standardized and modular solutions with proven liquefaction technology provide LNG plant developers a viable alternative to mitigate project risk and schedule.


Improve the Reliability of Your Assets with Prescriptive Maintenance

Equipment failures and process disruptions are creating unplanned downtime that is costing the process industries billions of dollars in lost revenue and profit every year. With asset performance management, it’s now possible to extract value from decades of design and operations data to perform prescriptive maintenance and optimize asset performance. In this white paper, you’ll read about nine companies that have implemented prescriptive maintenance solutions and the bottom-line results that have been achieved—in as little as 2 ½ weeks.


Air Products
Advances in Coil-wound Heat Exchangers Technology and Applications

As the LNG industry has evolved, technological advances have been essential in meeting new requirements. One of these has been the desire for more production from a single train, which has been achieved through both design improvements leading to more efficient exchangers, and also by building physically larger exchangers.


Energy Web Atlas _200
China's Growing Gas Demand: Key Products and Market Insights

China is growing increasingly energy-hungry as its population and transport infrastructure expands. China’s demand from oil into natural gas & LNG has outpaced supply for several years, which has resulted in the need to improve the country’s natural gas and LNG infrastructure. Download this whitepaper to learn more about China's state of natural gas and LNG demand.


Petroleum Economist Legal Energy Survey

Law firms serve as the essential lubricants in deal activity in oil and gas from wellhead to pump station. Until now, there has been no easy way to gauge which legal practices are most active in the market. Petroleum Economist will change that with the launch of the PE Legal Energy Survey.

Download here


Transmix Reduction with Rapid Sulfur Monitoring

Many different types and grades of petroleum products travel through pipelines in batches. Some mixing occurs at the interface between batches which results in transmix generation and product downgrading. By integrating a real-time online analyzer, you can optimize product cut-points even when specific gravity is the same.

Download here


Optimizing IIoT Value in Oil & Gas with IT-OT Alignment

Information Technology (IT) and Operational Technology (OT) teams have traditionally worked independently of one another. But the rise of digital transformation initiatives has forced organizations to rethink siloed operations. To achieve maximum business value, aligning the divided worlds of IT and OT can significantly accelerate IIoT's time to value. To learn how your organization can maximize IIoT value through an IT-OT alignment, download our new white paper.

Download here


Peaks and Valleys: Solving Gas Wellhead Flow Measurement Problems

With varying flow rates and pressure spikes, measuring flow on a gas wellhead that utilizes a plunger lift system can be challenging. Using a conventional pressure transmitter designed to cover only the normal working pressure of the well will result in lost income. This white paper explains how a Rosemount multivariable transmitter can solve your flow measurement challenges.

Download here


Copyright © 2019. All market data is provided by Barchart Solutions. Futures: at least a 10 minute delay. Information is provided 'as is' and solely for informational purposes, not for trading purposes or advice. To see all exchange delays and terms of use, please see disclaimer.

                                  CMEGroup                                     Icelogo


Editorial Comment
-Lee Nichols
Modern society would not be possible without the use of pipelines to transport natural gas, crude oil and finished products to demand centers.

Optimizing Gas Distribution: Accounting for Changeovers, Regulators, and More

Register Now

Gas distribution systems are critical to the effective operation of many industrial facilities around the world. Despite the importance of these systems, however, opportunities to improve their performance and cost-effectiveness are often missed or misunderstood. Increasing changeover pressure may seem like a good way to improve system flow, for example, but it often does so at the expense of bottled gas. Adding regulators may help you control supply pressure, but it also adds cost to your system. So, how do you know what the ideal gas distribution setup is for you?

Attend this webinar to:

  • Gain a basic understanding of the fluid dynamics that affect pressure control in gas distribution systems, learning to interpret flow curves and recognize phenomena like lockup, droop, and supply pressure effect (SPE)
  • Learn how inlet pressure affects regulator performance and when to specify certain regulator types and configurations to effectively control gas system pressures

Understand the inherent trade-offs between gas utilization and flow capacity and how to select both the right changeover pressure and automatic changeover panel design for your operations.

May 4, 2021 10:00 AM CDT

Register Now


Please read our Term and Conditions, Cookies Policy, and Privacy Policy before using the site. All material subject to strictly enforced copyright laws.
© 2022 Gulf Publishing Holdings LLC.